Magnesium Hydroxide: This form is often used as an antacid and/or in laxatives. It can be found in over-the-counter products, such as milk of magnesia. Because It has poor bioavailability, it is considered one of the least optimal forms to use as a supplement. Magnesium Oxide: This form of magnesium is one of the most commonly used in supplements. It is desirable because it is inexpensive and the compound is very small, so large amounts of elemental magnesium can be delivered without taking up much space in a tablet or capsule. Magnesium oxide has long been considered a poor source of magnesium,
Calorie Restriction (CR)
A dietary regimen that reduces the caloric intake of an individual without resulting in malnutrition or a reduction in the intake of essential nutrients.
NAD+/NADH Ratio A high NAD+/NADH ratio increases the stimulation of a variety of genes in the mitochondria and is associated with high energy production. CR and
What is Calorie Restriction?
Increasing longevity (or life span) is often
In addition, the focus has also shifted to the discovery of products that can be taken to mimic the effects of CR, for longevity and also for the treatment of diseases.
How does CR work?
Whilst a reduction in free radicals was originally suggested as a potential mechanism of action of CR, the common consensus now is that CR is linked to energy production mechanisms of mitochondria. The key role of mitochondria is to produce energy (in the form of ATP) for the cell, through a series of complex metabolic processes. One of the key lynch-pins in the mitochondrial energy production processes is a
On the other hand, high NADH levels
benaGene™ is a thermally stabilized form of oxaloacetate, which is a key intermediate of the energy producing processes of mitochondria. Increasing ox- aloacetate via supplementation has been shown to promote a higher NAD+/NADH ratio, which is associated with all the beneficial effects of CR.
CR has numerous health benefits, including increased longevity and disease prevention. The mechanism of action of CR involves an increase in the NAD+/NADH ratio in the mitochondria, which optimizes energy production and expression of CR genes. Supplementation with a specific stabilized form of oxaloacetate called benaGene™ has shown promising positive effects that can mimic
A thermally stable version of oxaloac- etate, which is a CR mimetic (mimick- ing) agent.
1. Fontana, et al. Long-term calorie restriction is highly effective in reducing the risk for atherosclerosis in humans. PNAS. 2004;101(17):6659-6663.
2. Hursting S, et al. Calorie Restriction, Aging and Cancer Prevention: Mechanisms of Action and Applicability to Humans. Annual Review of Medicine. 2003;54:131-152.
3. Lin SJ and Guarente L. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a metabolic regulator of transcription, longevity and disease. Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 2003;15:241-246.
4. Lin S, et al. Calorie restriction extends yeast life span by lowering the level of NADH”. Genes & Development 2004;18:12-16.
5. Lin SJ. Molecular Mechanisms of Longevity Regulation and Calorie Restriction. In: Kaput J and Rodriguz R. Nutritional Genomics: Discovering the Path to Personalized Nutrition. Wiley and Sons, Inc. NY. 2006.
6. Castro-Marrero J, Cordero MD, Segundo MJ, et al. Does Oral Coenzyme Q10 Plus NADH Supplementation Improve Fatigue and Biochemical Parameters in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome? Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 2015;22(8):679-685. doi:10.1089/ars.2014.6181.