Several studies have examined the influence of emotions on cognition, but common everyday situations also testify to the prevalence of this phenomenon. Indeed, who has never forgotten something important under the effect of acute stress, or hasn’t witnessed a menopausal relative complaining about becoming forgetful? The mechanisms and neural circuits involved in emotions and cognition are inextricably linked, and the maintenance of this delicate neurochemical balance is easily disrupted from exposure to stress. Stress triggers a cascade of hormone and neurotransmitter release throughout the brain, affecting our thoughts, decision-making process and behavior. Understanding the Impact of Stress Hans Selye (1907-1982),
The hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis (HPG axis) plays an important role
Female hormones affect
reproductive organs and also influence several other body functions by interacting with major neuro-endocrine systems including thyroid hormones, stress hormones, and the autonomic nervous system. The HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis is affected by similar factors as the HPG axis and involves the hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal glands as well as the hormones CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone), ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone) and the stress hormone known as cortisol which is necessary to survive. Therefore, a lack of normal functioning of the female reproductive system impacts a wide variety of other emotional and physical health conditions.
HPG axis refers to the effects of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads as if these separate endocrine glands were a single entity acting as a whole. Since the glands often function in cooperation, endocrinologists and physiologists find it more simple and descriptive to refer to them as a single system. The HPG axis controls reproduction, development, and aging. The hypothalamus produces gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). The anterior portion of the pituitary gland produces luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and the gonads produce estrogen and testosterone.
The hypothalamus is located in the brain and secretes GnRH. GnRH moves down the anterior portion of the pituitary and binds to the secretory cell receptors of the anterior pituitary.
In response to stimulation from GnRH, these cells then produce LH and FSH, which enters into the blood stream. These two hormones have a significant role in communicating to the gonads. FSH and LH act primarily to activate the ovaries to produce estrogen and inhibin and to regulate the menstrual cycle and ovarian cycle in females
Symptoms of HPG Axis DysfunctionThe most common cause of hot flashes in menopausal women is changing levels of estrogen in the body. Diminished amounts of estrogen have a direct effect on the hypothalamus, the part of the brain responsible for controlling appetite, sex hormones, sleep, and body temperature. Lowered levels of estrogen confuse the hypothalamus, causing it to inaccurately sense that the body is overheating. This provokes an internal chain of reactions that women experience as “hot flashes”. Sudden weight gain in women may also be caused by hormone imbalance. Since the hypothalamus is responsible for metabolism and body temperature, when the hypothalamus isn’t functioning normally, this can slow metabolism, also causing the thermogenic process for fat burning to slow, thus causing significant weight increase.
HPG Axis’ Role in Female Reproduction and Development
One ofthemost important functions of the HPG axis is to regulate reproduction by influencing the ovarian and uterine cycles. In females, a positive feedback loop between luteinizing hormone and estrogen assists in preparing the follicle in the ovary and the uterus for ovulation and implantation. At the time the egg is released, the ovary starts to produce progesterone to inhibit the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary, therefore stopping the estrogen-LH positive feedback loop. If conception does occur, the fetus will assume the role of secreting progesterone; causing the mother to be unable to ovulate again. If conception does not occur, reduced progesterone excretion will allow the hypothalamus to restart secretion of GnRH. These hormone levels also influence the menstrual cycle initiating the proliferation phase to prepare for ovulation, the secretory phase after ovulation, and menstruation when conception does not occur. HPG axis activation in both males and females during puberty also causes individuals to gain secondary sex characteristics. HPG axis activation and deactivation also helps to regulate life cycles. FSH and LH levels are elevated at birth, and females have a lifetime supply of the primary cells from which an egg develops (oocytes). These levels decrease and remain lower throughout childhood. At puberty the HPG axis is activated by estrogen secreted from the ovaries or testosterone from the testes. Physiological and psychological changes are caused by the activation of estrogen and testosterone. After being activated, the HPG axis functions in men for the rest of their life but becomes deregulated in women which leads to menopause. The deregulation is caused mainly by the reduction in oocytes that normally produce estrogen to create the positive feedback loop. Over many years, HPG axis activity decreases and women cease to be fertile. Balancing the HPG axis throughout life is important since it significantly affects temperature regulation, metabolism, weight control, mood and also the aging process. Lifestyle factors and dietary choices as well as supplements and medications can all profoundly affect the functioning of this system.